The Fate of Online Trust in the Next Decade | Pew Research Center

, ; The Fate of Online Trust in the Next Decade; Pew Research Center; 2017-08-10; 89 pages; landing.


Many experts say lack of trust will not be a barrier to increased public reliance on the internet. Those who are hopeful that trust will grow expect technical and regulatory change will combat users’ concerns about security and privacy. Those who have doubts about progress say people are inured to risk, addicted to convenience and will not be offered alternatives to online interaction. Some expect the very nature of trust will change.


  • Delphi-type survey design
  • N=1,233
  • A pull-quote generation vehicle. To Wit.


  • 48% → trust will be strengthened
  • 28% → trust will stay the same
  • 24% → trust will be diminished


Six major themes on the future of trust in online interactions

Theme 1
Trust will strengthen because systems will improve and people will adapt to them and more broadly embrace them

  • Better technology plus regulatory and industry changes will help increase trust
  • The younger generation and people whose lives rely on technology the most are the vanguard of those who most actively use it, and these groups will grow larger
Theme 2
The nature of trust will become more fluid as technology embeds itself into human and organizational relationships

  • Trust will be dependent upon immediate context and applied differently in different circumstances
  • Trust is not binary or evenly distributed; there are different levels of it
Theme 3
Trust will not grow, but technology usage will continue to rise, as a “new normal” sets in

  • “The trust train has left the station”; sacrifices tied to trust are a “side effect of progress”
  • People often become attached to convenience and inured to risk
  • There will be no choice for users but to comply and hope for the best
Theme 4
Some say blockchain could help; some expect its value might be limited

  • Blockchain has potential to improve things
  • There are reasons to think blockchain might not be as disruptive and important as its advocates expect it to be
Theme 5
The less-than-satisfying current situation will not change much in the next decade
Theme 6
Trust will diminish because the internet is not secure, and powerful forces threaten individuals’ rights

  • Corporate and government interests are not motivated to improve trust or protect the public
  • Criminal exploits will diminish trust


Imagining The Internet (Center)
  • Pew Research Center
  • Elon University

Separately noted, maybe, but you have to wait for it.

The Bitcoin Lightning Network: Scalable Off-Chain Instant Payments | Poon, Dryja

Joseph Poon, Thaddeus Dryja; https is busted, The Bitcoin Lightning Network: Scalable Off-Chain Instant Payments, draft v0.5.9.2; a white paper; Lightning Network; 2016-01-14; 59 pages.

tl;dr → transactions are fractioned out (structured) into micro-transactions and sent via separate channels.


The bitcoin protocol can encompass the global financial transaction volume in all electronic payment systems today, without a single custodial third party holding funds or requiring participants to have anything more than a computer using a broadband connection. A decentralized system is proposed whereby transactions are sent over a network of micropayment channels (a.k.a. payment channels or transaction channels) whose transfer of value occurs off-blockchain. If Bitcoin transactions can be signed with a new sighash type that addresses malleability, these transfers may occur between untrusted parties along the transfer route by contracts which, in the event of uncooperative or hostile participants, are enforceable via broadcast over the bitcoin blockchain in the event of uncooperative or hostile participants, through a series of decrementing timelocks.


  • slow blockchain
  • fast fractional network
  • gossip protocol
  • ledger


  1. Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-peer Electronic Cash System., Oct 2008-10.
  2. Manny Trillo. Stress Test Prepares VisaNet for the Most Wonderful Time of the Year, 2013-10.
  3. Bitcoin Wiki. Example 7: Rapidly-adjusted (micro)payments to a pre-determined party within Contracts. undated.
  4. bitcoinj (a github). Working with micropayment channels. undated.
  5. Leslie Lamport. The Part-Time Parliament. In ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 21(2):133–169. 1998-05.
  6. Leslie Lamport. Time, Clocks and The Ordering of Events in a Distributed System. In Communications of the ACM, 21(7):558–565, 1978-07.
  7. Alex Akselrod. Draft. 2013-03.
  8. Alex Akselrod. ESCHATON. 2014-04.
  9. Peter Todd. Near-zero fee transactions with hub-and-spoke micropayments. 2014-12.
  10. C. J. Plooy.”>Combining Bitcoin and the Ripple to create a fast, scalable, decentralized, anonymous, low-trust payment network. 2013-01-01.
  11. Mark Friedenbach. BIP 0068: Consensus-enforced transaction replacement signaled via sequence numbers (relative locktime). 2015-05.
  12. Mark Friedenbach BtcDrak, Eric Lombrozo. BIP 0112: CHECK-SEQUENCEVERIFY. 2015-08.
  13. Jonas Schnelli. What does OP CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY do?. In Stack Exchange 2015-07.
  14. Greg Maxwell (nullc). Some Discussion. On /r/Bitcoin, hosted on reddit. 2015-05.
  15. Gavin Andresen. BIP 0016: Pay to Script Hash. 2012-01.
  16. Pieter Wuille. BIP 0032: Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets. 2012-02.
  17. Ilja Gerhardt, Timo Hanke. Homomorphic Payment Addresses and the Pay-to-Contract Protocol. 2012-12; arXiv:1212.3257.
  18. Nick Szabo. Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks. In His Blog. 1997-09.

19 Is the New 60 | Lenore Skenazy (WSJ)

Lenore Skenazy; 19 Is the New 60; In The Wall Street Journal (WSJ); 2017-08-10.
Teaser: Adults should stop stealing away the time kids need to play.

Original Sources

Nineteen Year Olds As Sedentary As Sixty Year Olds Study Suggests; press release; Johns Hopkins University; 2017.
Teaser: Teen years represent highest risk for inactivity; increases in activity levels only seen in 20-somethings

Vijay R. Varma, Debangan Dey, Andrew Leroux, Junrui Di, Jacek Urbanek, Luo Xiao, Vadim Zipunnikov, “Re-evaluating the effect of age on physical activity over the lifespan,” In Preventive Medicine, 2017-06-01.


  • <pull-quote>When it comes to physical activity, 19 is the new 60. </pull-quote>
  • The Study. That. Shows.
    • 2017-06.
    • N=12,500
    • panel
    • tracking device logging & diaries
    • Authors
      • Vadim Zipunnikov, professor, Johns Hopkins University
      • and others
  • <quote>Correlation isn’t causation</quote>, attributed to Lenore Skenazy. Yes, she actually uttered that in the essay.
  • Peter Gray, professor, psychology, Boston College


  • loss of “locus of control,”
  • strong connection (a link? as it were) between happiness and feeling in control of life.


  • Vadim Zipunnikov, professor, Johns Hopkins University
  • Peter Gray, professor, psychology, Boston College


Squaring Venture Capital Valuations with Reality | Gornall, Strebulaev

Will Gornall, Ilya A. Strebulaev. Squaring Venture Capital Valuations with Reality (2017-07-11; 2017-04-22 → 2017-07-16). Stanford University Graduate School of Business Research Paper No. 17-29. ssrn:2955455; Abstract ssrn:2968003. 54 pages.

tl;dr → <quote>recently issued shares almost always have better cash flow rights than the previously issued shares</quote> as anyone in the business for more than one series-cycle will be able to tell you.. The valuations claimed out to the Muggles are inflated, by (average) 49%-59% and upwards unto 100% and beyond.


We develop a financial model to estimate the fair value of venture capital-backed companies and of each type of security these companies issue. Our model uses the most recent financing round price and the terms of that financing to infer the value of each of their shares. Using data from legal filings, we show that the average highly-valued venture capital-backed company reports a valuation 49% above its fair value, with common shares overvalued by 59%. In our sample of unicorns – companies with reported valuation above $1 billion – almost one half (53 out of 116) lose their unicorn status when their valuation is recalculated and 11 companies are overvalued by more than 100%. Overvaluation arises because the reported valuations assume all of a company’s shares have the same price as the most recently issued shares. In practice, these most recently issued shares almost always have better cash flow rights than the previously issued shares, so equating their prices significantly inflates valuations. Specifically, we find 53% of unicorns have given their most recent investors either a return guarantees in IPO (14%), the ability to block IPOs that do not return most of their investment (20%), seniority over all other investors (31%), or other important terms.


Gornall, Will and Strebulaev, Ilya A., Squaring Venture Capital Valuations with Reality (July 11, 2017). Stanford University Graduate School of Business Research Paper No. 17-29. Available at SSRN: ssrn:2955455.

University of Washington DNA Sequencing Security Study | University of Washington

Frequently-Asked Questions (FAQ)
Computer Security and Privacy in DNA Sequencing
Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Washington

tl;dr → it’s a bug report on fqzcomp, fzcomp-4.6, wrapped in some lab work, wrapped in scare piece wrapped in an academic paper. It mentions DNA, people are made of DNA, YOU are made of DNA.

  • In the future, everyone will be famous for fifteen minutes.
    • They did it for the lulz, and the whuffie.
    • They did it for the FUD.
  • They are frontrunning the presntation of the paper at the conference site in Vancouver, CA
  • But there is nothing to worry about.
    • Really.
    • No, Really.
    • And they’ve already contacted the project sponsors with their work product.

Today’s theoretical demonstrations are tomorrow’s practice.

Original Sources

Ney, Koscher, Organick, Creze, Kohno; Computer Security, Privacy, and DNA Sequencing: Compromising Computers with Synthesized DNA, Privacy Leaks, and More; In  Proceedings of the USENIX Security Symposium; 2017-08-16; 15 pages.


  • They created DNA with particular patterns.
  • They used buffer overflows in C & C++ programs.
  • FASTQ, a data format.
  • /dev/tcp accessed via bash


  • <quote>Although used broadly by biology researchers, many of these programs are written by small research groups and thus have likely not been subjected to serious adversarial pressure. </quote>
  • <quote><snip/> copied fqzcomp from SourceForge and inserted a vulnerability into version 4.6 of its source code; a function that processes and compresses DNA reads individually, using a fixed-size buffer to store the compressed data.<quote>
  • <quote>Our second exploit attempt uses an obscure feature of bash, which exposes virtual /dev/tcp devices that create TCP/IP connections. We use this feature to redirect stdin and stdout of /bin/sh to a TCP/IP socket, which connects back to our server.<quote>


The “research” coders do not validate their inputs; they use whatever computer tools are handy for their purpose. Their purpose is to publish papers in their field of study. Their code works just well enough; it is MVP for an MPU. Those “researchers” who do validate their inputs, who do test their code, who do read CVE notices, who do remediate latent vulnerabilities aren’t researchers at all. They are drone coders in an on-time-under-budget, time & materials IT shop. “We” need such people and such skill is a valued trade craft by which to make an honorable living.  But such activity is Not New. It is not The Research.

Toward a critical theory of corporate wellness | Gordon Hull & Frank Pasquale

Gordon Hull; More self-promotion: “Toward a critical theory of corporate wellness”; In His Blog; 2017-07-10.

tl;dr → employee wellness is but a surveillance-cum-control plane; a promotion of a forthcoming paper (you can read it for free if you’ve paid, which is a paywall)

Original Sources

Gordon Hull, Frank Pasquale; “Toward a critical theory of corporate wellness,”  In Biosocieties; soon.paywall.



In the U.S., “employee wellness” programs are increasingly attached to employer-provided health insurance. These programs attempt to nudge employees, sometimes quite forcefully, into healthy behaviors such as smoking cessation and exercise routines. Despite being widely promoted as saving on healthcare costs, numerous studies undermine this rationale. After documenting the programs’ failure to deliver a positive return on investment, we analyze them as instead providing an opportunity for employers to exercise increasing control over their employees. Based on human capital theory and neoliberal models of subjectivity that emphasize personal control and responsibility, these programs treat wellness as a lifestyle that employees must be cajoled into adopting, extending the workplace not just into the home but into the bodies of workers and entrenching the view that one belongs to one’s workplace. At the same time, their selective endorsement of health programs (many scientifically unsupported) produce a social truth of wellness framed as fitness for work. We conclude by arguing that the public health initiatives occluded by the private sector’s promotion of wellness programs would be a much better investment of resources.


  1. Ajunwa, I., Crawford, K. and Ford, J. (2016) Health and big data: An ethical framework for health information collection by corporate wellness programs. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 44(3): 474–480. Google Scholar
  2. Ajunwa, I., Crawford, K. and Schultz, J. (in press) Limitless worker surveillance. California Law Review. Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, J. (1988) The ideological construction of risk: An analysis of corporate health promotion programs in the 1980s. Social Science and Medicine 26(5): 559–567. DOI:10.1016/0277-9536(88)90389-9. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  4. Amoore, L. (2004) Risk, reward and discipline at work. Economy and Society 33(2): 174–196. DOI:10.1080/03085140410001677111. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  5. Baicker, K., Cutler, D. and Song Z. (2010) Workplace wellness programs can generate savings. Health Affairs 29(2): 304–311. DOI:10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0626. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  6. Barr, S.I., DiFrancesco, L. and Fulgoni, V.L. (2015) Association of breakfast consumption with body mass index and prevalence of overweight/obesity in a nationally-representative survey of Canadian adults. Nutrition Journal 15: 33. DOI:10.1186/s12937-016-0151-3. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  7. Basas, C.G. (2014) What’s bad about wellness? What the disability rights perspective offers about the limitations of wellness. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 39(5): 1035–1066. DOI:10.1215/03616878-2813695. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  8. Becker, G.S. (2007) Health as human capital: Synthesis and extensions. Oxford Economic Papers 59(3): 379–410. DOI:10.1093/oep/gpm020. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  9. Becker, G.S. (1975) Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education. New York: NBER/Columbia University Press. Google Scholar
  10. Bernard, T.S. (2015) The sticks and carrots of employee wellness programs. The New York Times.
  11. Binkley, S. (2009) The work of neoliberal governmentality: Temporality and ethical substance in the tale of two dads. Foucault Studies 6: 60–78. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  12. Binkley, S. (2014) Happiness as Enterprise: An Essay on Neoliberal Life. Albany: SUNY Press. Google Scholar
  13. boyd, d. and Crawford, K. (2012) Critical questions for Big Data. Information, Communication and Society 15(5): 662–679. DOI:10.1080/1369118x.2012.678878.
  14. Brown, W. (2015) Undoing the Demos: Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution. New York: Zone Books. Google Scholar
  15. Burris, S. (Undated) Understanding how law influences environments and behavior, a web page. Temple University for Public Health Law Research.
  16. Cauchi, R. (2016) State employee health benefits, insurance, and costs. National Conference of State Legislatures. web page.
  17. Chaloupka, F.J., Yurekli, A. and Fong, G.T. (2012) Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy. Tobacco Control 21: 172–180. DOI:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050417. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  18. Chowdhury, E.A., Richardson, J.D., Holman, G.D., Tsintzas, K., Thompson, D. and Betts, J.A. (2016) The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: A randomized controlled trial in obese adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 103(3): 747–756. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.115.122044. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  19. Conrad, P. (1988) Worksite health promotion: The social context. Social Science and Medicine 26(5): 485–489. DOI:10.1016/0277-9536(88)90381-4. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  20. Contreary, K.A., Chattopadhyay, S.K., Hopkins, D.P., Chloupka, F.J., Forster, J.L., Grimshaw, V., et al. (2015) Economic impact of tobacco price increases through taxation: A community guide systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 49(5): 800–808. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.04.026. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  21. Cooper, M. (2012) Workfare, familyfare, godfare: Transforming contingency into necessity. South Atlantic Quarterly 111(4): 643–661. DOI:10.1215/00382876-1724120. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  22. Corporate Health and Wellness Association. (n.d.) Worksite wellness – an investment in human capital. Corporate Wellness (Magazine).
  23. Crawford, K. (2016) Can an algorithm be agonistic? Ten scenes from life in calculated publics. Science, Technology and Human Values 41(1): 77–92. DOI:10.1177/0162243915589635. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  24. Crawford, R. (1980) Healthism and the medicalization of everyday life. International Journal of Health Services 10(3): 365–388. DOI:10.2190/3H2H-3XJN-3KAY-G9NY. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  25. Dale, K. and Burrell, G. (2013) Being occupied: An embodied re-reading of organizational ‘wellness’. Organization. DOI:10.1177/1350508412473865. Google Scholar
  26. Davies, W. (2015a) The Happiness Industry. New York: Verso. Google Scholar
  27. Davies, W. (2015b) Spirits of neoliberalism: ‘Competitiveness’ and ‘wellbeing’ as indicators of rival orders of worth. In: R. Rottenburg, S.E. Merry, S.-J. Park and J. Mugler (eds.) The World of Indicators: The Making of Governmental Knowledge Through Quantification (pp. 283–305). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  28. EEOC v. Flambeau. (2015). Google Scholar
  29. Ernst, M. (2011). Dangerous by Design.
  30. Esposti, S.D. (2014) When Big Data meets dataveillance: The hidden side of analytics. Surveillance Society 12(2): 209-225. Google Scholar
  31. Feldman, D.I., Al-Mallah, M.H., Keteyian, S.J., Brawner, C.A., Feldman, T., Blumenthal, R.S. and Blaha, M.J. (2015) No evidence of an upper threshold for mortality benefit at high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 65(6): 629–630. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.11.030. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  32. Ferrie, J.E., Virtanen, M., Jokela, M., Madsen, I.E.H., Heikkilä, K., Alfredsson, L., Batty, G.D., Bjorner, J.B., Borritz, M., Burr, H., Dragano, N., Elovainio, M., Fransson, E.I., Knutsson, A., Koskenvuo, M., Koskinen, A., Kouvonen, A., Kumari, M., Nielsen, M.L., Nordin, M., Oksanen, T., Pahkin, K., Pejtersen, J.H., Pentti, J., Salo, P., Shipley, M.J., Suominen, S.B., Tabák, A., Theorell, T., Väänänen, A., Vahtera, J., Westerholm, P.J.M., Westerlund, H., Rugulies, R., Nyberg, S.T. and Kivimäki, M. (2016) Job insecurity and risk of diabetes: a meta-analysis of individual participant data. Canadian Medical Association Journal DOI:10.1503/cmaj.150942. Google Scholar
  33. Finkelstein, E.A. (2016) Effectiveness of activity trackers with and without incentives to increase physical activity (TRIPPA): A randomised controlled trial, Lancet 4(12): 983–995. Google Scholar
  34. Flegal, K.M. (2014) Metabolically healthy overweight and obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine 160(7): 515–516. DOI:10.7326/L14-5007-6. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  35. Forsberg, L. (2016) 2016 State health plan annual enrollment. presentation.
  36. Foster, R. (2016) The therapeutic spirit of neoliberalism. Political Theory 44(1): 82–105. DOI:10.1177/0090591715594660. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  37. Foucault, M. (1982) The subject and power. In: H.L. Dreyfus and P. Rabinow (eds.) Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics (pp. 208–226). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
  38. Foucault, M. (1985) The Use of Pleasure (R. Hurley, Trans.). New York: Vintage Books. Google Scholar
  39. Foucault, M. (2008) The birth of biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-79 (G. Burchell, Trans., M. Senellart ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
  40. Foucault, M. (2011) The Courage of Truth (The Government of Self and Others II): Lectures at the Collège de France, 1983-1984 (F. Gros Ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
  41. Frakt, A. and Carroll, A.E. (2014) Do workplace wellness programs work? Usually not. New York Times.
  42. French, M. (2014) Gaps in the gaze: Informatic practice and the work of public health surveillance. Surveillance Society 12(2): 226–243. Google Scholar
  43. Gillespie, T. (2013) The relevance of algorithms. In J.B. Pablo and K.A. Foot (eds.) Media Technologies: Essays on Communication, Materiality, and Society (pp. 167–193). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  44. Ginn, G.O. and Henry, L.J. (2003) Wellness programs in the context of strategic human resource management. Hospital Topics 81(1): 23–29. DOI:10.1080/00185860309598012. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  45. Goetzel, R. (2013) Workplace wellness programs: Continuing the discussion with Dinardo, Howitz, and Kelly. Health Affairs Blog. blog post.
  46. Greenfield, R. (2016) Employee wellness programs not so voluntary anymore. Bloomberg. article.
  47. Guthman, J. and Brown, S. (2016) Whose life counts: Biopolitics and the “bright line” of chloropicrin mitigation in California’s strawberry industry. Science, Technology and Human Values 41(3): 461–482. DOI:10.1177/0162243915606804. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  48. Hall, K.D., Chen, K.Y., Guo, J., Lam, Y.Y., Leibel, R.L., Mayer, L.E. et al. (2016) Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.116.133561. Google Scholar
  49. Hamann, T.H. (2009) Neoliberalism, governmentality, and ethics. Foucault Studies 6: 37–59. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  50. Harcourt, B.E. (2011) The Illusion of Free Markets. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar
  51. Harvey, D. (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  52. Health Enhancement and Research Organization and Population Health Alliance. (2015) Program measurement and evaluation guide: Core metrics for employee health management.
  53. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-191, 110 Stat. 1936 (1996). Google Scholar
  54. Horwitz, J.R., Kelly, B.D. and DiNardo, J.E. (2013) Wellness incentives in the workplace: Cost savings through cost shifting to unhealthy workers. Health Affairs 32(3): 468–476. DOI:10.1377/hlthaff.2012.0683. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  55. Hull, G. (2015) Successful failure: What Foucault can teach us about privacy self-management in a world of Facebook and big data. Ethics and Information Technology 17(2): 89–101. DOI:10.1007/s10676-015-9363-z. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  56. Jeppsson, S. (2015) Obesity and obligation. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 25(1): 89–110. DOI:10.1353/ken.2015.0001. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  57. Jo, E. and Dolezal, B.A. (2016) Validation of the Fitbit ® Surge™ and Charge HR™ fitness trackers. pdf.
  58. Jost, T. (2007) Health Care at Risk: A Critique of the Consumer-Driven Movement. Raleigh, NC: Duke University Press. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  59. Kalecki, M. (1943) Political aspects of full employment. Political Quarterly 7: 322–331. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  60. Kitchin, R. (2014) Big Data, new epistemologies and paradigm shifts. Big Data and Society. DOI:10.1177/2053951714528481. Google Scholar
  61. Kotarba, J.A. and Bentley, P. (1988) Workplace wellness participation and the becoming of self. Social Science and Medicine 26(5): 551–558. DOI:10.1016/0277-9536(88)90388-7. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  62. Kronenfeld, J.J., Jackson, K.L., Davis, K.E. and Blair, S.N. (1988) Changing health practices: The experience from a worksite health promotion project. Social Sciences and Medicine 26(5): 515–523. DOI:10.1016/0277-9536(88)90384-X. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  63. LawAtlas. (2015) The Policy Surveillance Program.
  64. Lampert, R., Tuit, K., Hong, K.I., Donovan, T., Lee, F., Sinha, R. (2016) Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample. Stress 19(3): 269–279. DOI:10.1080/10253890.2016.1174847. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  65. Langley, P. (2007) Uncertain subjects of Anglo-American financialization. CULTURAL CRITIQUE 65: 67–91. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  66. Lewis, A. (2015) Warning: Workplace wellness is hazardous to your health. Huffington Post. blog post.
  67. Lewis, A. and Khanna, V. (2014) Surviving workplace wellness with your dignity, finances, and major organs intact. The Health Care Blog. Google Scholar
  68. Lewis, A. and Khanna, V. (2015) Tag archive: “Wellness outcomes.” TheySaidWhat (blog). blog post.
  69. Lewis, A., Khanna, V. and Montrose, S. (2015) Employers should disband employee weight control programs. American Journal of Managed Care 21(2): e91–e94. Google Scholar
  70. Lupton, D. (in press) Lively data, social fitness and biovalue: the intersections of health self-tracking and social media. In: J. Burgess, A.E. Marwick, T. Poell, and J. Van Dijck (eds.) The Sage Handbook on Social Media. London: Sage. Google Scholar
  71. Lupton, D. (2016) The Quantified Self (London, UK: Polity Press). Google Scholar
  72. Martin, R. (2002) The Financialization of Everyday Life. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. Google Scholar
  73. Mattke, S., Liu, H., Caloyeras, J.P., Huang, C.Y., Van Busum, K.R. Khodyakov, D. and Shier, V. (2013) Workplace wellness programs study: Final report. report.
  74. Mayer, J. (2011) State for sale. The New Yorker.
  75. McGillivray, D. (2005) Fitter, happier, more productive: Governing working bodies through wellness. Cult Organization 11(2): 125–138. DOI:10.1080/14759550500091036. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  76. Miller, C.C. (2015) Stressed, tired, rushed: A portrait of the modern family. New York Times.
  77. McMahon, J. (2015) Behavioral Economics as Neoliberalism: Producing and Governing homo economicus. Contemporary Political Theory 14: 137–158. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  78. Mirowski, P. (2011) Science-Mart: Privatizing American Science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  79. Mirowski, P. (2013) Never Let a Serious Crisis go to Waste: How Neoliberalism Survived the Financial Meltdown. New York: Verso. Google Scholar
  80. Mitchell, M. (2016) The ‘Tyranny’ of Positive Thinking can Threaten Your Health and Happiness. Newsweek. Google Scholar
  81. Moraine, S. (2015) The Apple Watch’s invasive trackers. blog post.
  82. Morris, F.C., Solander, A.C. and Huelle, A.E. (2015) EEOC issues proposed wellness program amendments to ADA regulations.
  83. Moss, M. (2013) Salt, Sugar, Fat: How the Food Giants Hooked Us. New York: Random House. Google Scholar
  84. O’Connor, A. (2016) Coke and Pepsi Give Millions to Public Health, Then Lobby Against It. New York Times, October 11. Google Scholar
  85. Ortega, F.B., Lavie, C.J. and Blair, S.N. (2016) Obesity and cardiovascular disease. Circulation Research 118(11): 1752–1770. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.306883. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  86. Owens, A. (2009) N.C. State health plan targets smokers and the obese.
  87. Pasquale, F. (2012) Accountable care organizations in the Affordable Care Act. Seton Hall Law Review 42(1371). Google Scholar
  88. Pasquale, F. (2013) Privacy, antitrust, and power. George Mason Law Review 20(1): 1009–1024. Google Scholar
  89. Pasquale, F. (2014a) Private certifiers and deputies in American Health Care. North Carolina Law Review 92(1661). Google Scholar
  90. Pasquale, F. (2014b) Redescribing health privacy: The Importance of information policy. Houston Journal of Health Law and Policy 14. Google Scholar
  91. Pasquale, F. (2014c) The hidden costs of health care cost-cutting: Toward a postneoliberal health-reform agenda. Law and Contemporary Problems 77(171). Google Scholar
  92. Pervaaz, V. (2016) What will workplace wellness look like in 2020? Corporate Wellness Magazine.
  93. Pew Research Center. (2015) Raising kids and running a household: How working parents share the load. blog post.
  94. Pongratz, L.A. (2006) Voluntary self-control: Education reform as a governmental strategy. Educational Philosophy and Theory 38(4): 471–482. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-5812.2006.00205.x. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  95. Read, J. (2009) A genealogy of homo-economicus: Neoliberalism and the production of subjectivity. Foucault Studies 6: 25–36. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  96. Rieder, G. and Simon, J. (2016) Datatrust: Or, the political quest for numerical evidence and the epistemologies of Big Data. Big Data and Society. DOI:10.1177/2053951716649398. Google Scholar
  97. Roman, P.M. and Blum, T.C. (1988) Formal intervention in employee health: Comparisons of the nature and structure of employee assistance programs and health promotion programs. Social Science and Medicine 26(5): 503–514. 10.1016/0277-9536(88)90383-8. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  98. Rose, N.S. (2007) Politics of Life Itself: Biomedicine, Power, and Subjectivity in the Twenty-First Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  99. Rosenfeld, S. (2016) Online public schools are a disaster, admits billionaire, charter-school promoter Walton Family Foundation. Alternet.
  100. Ruppert, E. (2012) The governmental topologies of database devices. Theory Culture and Society 29(4–5): 116–136. DOI:10.1177/0263276412439428. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  101. Schnohr, P., O’Keefe, J.H., Marott, J.L., Lange, P. and Jensen, G.B. (2015) Dose of jogging and long-term mortality: The Copenhagen City heart study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 65(5): 411–419. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.11.023. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  102. Schüll, N. (2016) Data for life: Wearable technology and the design of self-care. Biosocieties 11: 317–333. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  103. Simon, J. (2002) Taking risks: Extreme sports and the embrace of risk in advanced liberal societies. In: T. Baker and J. Simon (eds.) Embracing Risk: The Changing Culture of Insurance and Responsibility (pp. 177–208). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
  104. Soares, R.R. (2014) Gary Becker’s contributions in health economics. Journal of Demographic Economics 1(1). Google Scholar
  105. Stanley, J. (forthcoming, 2017) The Emergency Manager: Strategic Racism, Technocracy, and the Poisoning of Flint’s Children, The Good Society. promotion.
  106. Strandburg, K.J. (2005) Curiosity-driven research and university technology transfer. In: G.D. Libecap (ed.), University Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer: Process, Design, and Intellectual Property (pp. 93–122). Oxford: Elsevier. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  107. Taylor, C. (1984) Foucault on freedom and truth. Political Theory 12(2): 152–183. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  108. Till, C. (in press) Commercialising bodies: The new corporate health ethic of philanthrocapitalism. In R. Lynch and C. Farrington (eds.) Critical Explorations of Health, Society and Technology Through Personal Medical Devices. Palgrave-Macmillan. Google Scholar
  109. Till, C. (2014) Exercise as labour: Quantified self and the transformation of exercise into labour. Societies 4(3): 446. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  110. Tomasetti, C. and Vogelstein, B. (2015) Variation in cancer risk among tissues can be explained by the number of cell divisions. Science 347(6217): 78–81. DOI:10.1126/science.1260825. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  111. Vander Schee, C. (2008) The politics of health as a school-sponsored ethic: Foucault, neoliberalism, and the unhealthy employee. Educational Policy 22(6): 854–874. DOI:10.1177/0895904807312471. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  112. Whitacre, P.T., Tsai, P. and Mulligan, J. (2009) The Public Health Effects of Food Deserts. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Google Scholar
  113. Wiley, L.F. (2013) Shame, blame, and the emerging law of obesity control. University of California Davis Law Review 47(1): 121–188. Google Scholar
  114. Wiley, L.F. (2014) Access to health care as an incentive for healthy behavior? An assessment of the Affordable Care Act’s personal responsibility for wellness reforms. Indiana Health Law Review 11(2): 635–712. Google Scholar
  115. Winnubst, S. (2015) Way Too Cool: Selling Out Race and Ethics. New York: Columbia University Press. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  116. Winslow, L. (2015) The Undeserving Professor: Neoliberalism and the Reinvention of Higher Education. Rhetoric and Public Affairs 18(2): 201–245. CrossRef, Google Scholar
  117. World Health Organization (1948) WHO definition of health. web page.

The Digital Privacy Paradox: Small Money, Small Costs, Small Talk | Athey, Catalini, Tucker

Susan Athey, Christian Catalini, Catherine Tucker; The Digital Privacy Paradox: Small Money, Small Costs, Small Talk; working paper; 2017-02-13; 32 pages; landing; Working Paper W23488; National Bureau o Gratuitously Paywall Rough Drafts (NBER); paywall.
Susan Athey, senior fellow, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research
Christian Catalini, MIT
Catherine Tucker, MIT

tl;dr → <quote>Consumers say they care about privacy, but at multiple points in the process they end up making choices that are inconsistent with their stated preferences.</quote>

See Item #3, How cool of a result is that? You are safe, you are loved, you are subtle, you are special. You may opt out any time. And we give back to the community.


This paper uses data from the MIT digital currency experiment to shed light on consumer behavior regarding commercial, public and government surveillance. The set- ting allows us to explore the apparent contradiction that many cryptocurrencies offer people the chance to escape government surveillance, but do so by making transactions themselves public on a distributed ledger (a ‘blockchain’). We find three main things.

  1. First, the effect of small incentives may explain the privacy paradox, where people say they care about privacy but are willing to relinquish private data quite easily.
  2. Second, small costs introduced during the selection of digital wallets by the random ordering of featured options, have a tangible effect on the technology ultimately adopted, often in sharp contrast with individual stated preferences about privacy.
  3. Third, the introduction of irrelevant, but reassuring information about privacy protection makes consumers less likely to avoid surveillance at large.


  • Acquisti, A., C. Taylor, and L. Wagman (2016). The economics of privacy. In Journal of Economic Literature 54 (2), 442–492.
  • Allcott, H. and T. Rogers (2014). The short-run and long-run effects of behavioral interventions: Experimental evidence from energy conservation. In The American Economic Review 104 (10), 3003–3037.
  • Athey, S., I. Parashkevov, S. Sarukkai, and J. Xia (2016). Bitcoin pricing, adoption, and usage: Theory and evidence. SSRN Working Paper ssrn:2822729.
  • Barnes, S. B. (2006). A Privacy Paradox: Social Networking in the United States. In First Monday 11 (9).
  • Bertrand, M., D. Karlan, S. Mullainathan, E. Shafir, and J. Zinman (2010). What’s advertising content worth? evidence from a consumer credit marketing field experiment. In The Quarterly Journal of Economics 125 (1), 263–306.
  • Catalini, C. and J. S. Gans (2016). Some simple economics of the blockchain. SSRN Working Paper No. ssrn:2874598.
  • Catalini, C. and C. Tucker (2016). Seeding the s-curve? The role of early adopters in diffusion. SSRN Working Paper No. 28266749,
  • Chetty, R., A. Looney, and K. Kroft (2009). Salience and taxation: Theory and evidence. In The American Economic Review 99 (4), 1145–1177.
  • DellaVigna, S. (2009). Psychology and economics: Evidence from the field. In Journal of Economic Literature 47 (2), 315–372.
  • DellaVigna, S., J. A. List, and U. Malmendier (2012). Testing for altruism and social pressure in charitable giving. In The Quarterly Journal of Economics, qjr050.
  • DellaVigna, S. and U. Malmendier (2006). Paying not to go to the gym. The American Economic Review 96 (3), 694–719.
  • Gneezy, U. and J. A. List (2006). Putting behavioral economics to work: Testing for gift exchange in labor markets using field experiments. In Econometrica 74 (5), 1365–1384.
  • Greenstein, S. M., J. Lerner, and S. Stern (2010). The economics of digitization: An agenda for the National Science Foundation (NSF).
  • Gross, R. and A. Acquisti (2005). Information revelation and privacy in online social networks. In Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (WPES ’05), New York, NY, USA, pp. 71–80. ACM: ACM.
  • Harrison, G. W. and J. A. List (2004). Field experiments. In Journal of Economic Literature 42 (4), 1009–1055.
  • Ho, D. E. and K. Imai (2008). Estimating causal effects of ballot order from a randomized natural experiment the california alphabet lottery, 1978–2002. In Public Opinion Quarterly 72 (2), 216–240.
  • Kim, J.-H. and L. Wagman (2015). Screening incentives and privacy protection in financial markets: a theoretical and empirical analysis. In The RAND Journal of Economics 46 (1), 1–22.
  • Landry, C. E., A. Lange, J. A. List, M. K. Price, and N. G. Rupp (2010). Is a donor in hand better than two in the bush? evidence from a natural field experiment. In The American Economic Review 100 (3), 958–983.
  • Madrian, B. C. and D. F. Shea (2001). The power of suggestion: Inertia in 401 (k) participation and savings behavior. In The Quarterly Journal of Economics 116 (4), 1149–1187.
  • Marthews, A. and C. Tucker (2015). Government Surveillance and Internet Search Behavior SSRN Working Paper No. ssrn:2412564,
  • Miller, A. and C. Tucker (2011). Can healthcare information technology save babies? In Journal of Political Economy (2), 289–324.
  • Nakamoto, S. (2008). Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system.
  • Narayanan, A., J. Bonneau, E. Felten, A. Miller, and S. Goldfeder (2016). Bitcoin Cryptocurrency Technologies. Princeton University Press: Princeton NJ.
  • Posner, R. A. (1981). The economics of privacy. In The American Economic Review 71 (2), 405–409.



Private valuations are a fugazi | The Hustle

Private valuations are a fugazi; staff; In The Hustle; 2017-08-04.

tl;dr → reporter learns about how capitalization tables work, how liquidity preferences work, how warrants work, how finance works. Cites Bloomberg & NYT and ultimately Gornall & Strebulaev

Original Sources

Will Gornall, Ilya A. Strebulaev. Squaring Venture Capital Valuations with Reality (2017-07-11). Stanford University Graduate School of Business Research Paper No. 17-29. ssrn:2955455; Abstract ssrn:2968003. Separately filled.



  • 116 unicorns
  •  founded after 1994.


  • AppNexus
  • Square Inc.
  • HomeAway
  • Oscar Insurance Corp.
  • Pivotal Software Inc.
  • Snap Inc.
  • SolarCity
  • Uber Technologies, Inc.


How to Improve Resilience in Midlife | NYT

How to Improve Resilience in Midlife; Tara Parker-Pope; In The New York Times (NYT); 2017-07-25.

  • Practice Optimism
  • Rewrite Your Story (the narrative therapy)
  • Don’t Personalize It
  • Remember Your Comebacks
  • Support Others
  • Take Stress Breaks
  • Go Out of Your Comfort Zone


  • Most opinement is for children.
  • But adults have problems too.


  • Dennis Charney, shot, 2016.
  • Sheryl Sandberg, must lean in, widowed.
  • Sallie Krawcheck, fired, divorced.


  • <quote>There is a naturally learnable set of behaviors that contribute to resilience</quote>, attributed to Dennis Charney.
  • <quote>There is a biology to this <snip/></quote>, attributed to Dennis Charney; something about hormones.


  • Adam Grant, professor, management and psychology, Wharton School [of Business], University of Pennsylvania.
  • Sheryl Sandberg, chief operating officer, Facebook.
  • Dennis Charney
    • research, specializing in resilience, fortuitously,
    • Dean of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY.
  • Steven Southwick, professor, psychiatry, Medical School, Yale University
  • Sallie Ellevest, founder, Ellevest, distaff investment promotions; ex BofA.
  • Jack Groppel, co-founder, Johnson & Johnson Human Performance Institute; training services


  • Option B: Facing Adversity, Building Resilience and Finding Joy; Staff; In The New York Times (NYT); 2017-04-23.
    tl;dr → The book review. They like it.
  • Sheryl Sandberg, Adam Grant; Option B: Facing Adversity, Building Resilience, and Finding Joy; Knopf; 2017-04-24; 240 pages; Amazon:1524732680; Kindle: $14, paper: $6+SHT.
  • Steven M. Southwick, Dennis S. Charney; Resilience: The Science of Mastering Life’s Greatest Challenge; Cambridge University Press; 1 edition; 2012-07-23; 240 pages; Amazon:B009GEY7WI: Kindle: $14 (and device limits in the DRM); paper: $12+SHT.
  • PMC3410434; In PubMed.
    a.k.a. A Harvard Study. (That. Shows.); something about <quote>people who viewed stress as a way to fuel better performance did better on tests and managed their stress better physiologically than those taught to ignore stress.</quote>
  • A. Study. That. Shows; 2017.
    tl;dr → American military veterans, higher levels of gratitude, altruism and a sense of purpose predicted resiliency.

Ethnographic Experiential Futures | Candy, Kornet

Stuart Candy, Kelly Kornet; A Field Guide to Ethnographic Experiential Futures, version 1.1, Situation Lab 02017 (c.f. ten thousand year clock); presented at Design Develop Transform, Brussels; 2017-06, DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.30623.97448; landing.

tl;dr → how to run advanced product development to incorporate focus group feedback.


  1. Map
  2. Multiply
  3. Mediate
  4. Mount
  5. Map(again)

Separately noted.