I never signed up for this! Privacy implications of email tracking | Englehardt, Han, Narayanan

Steven Englehardt, Jeffrey Han, Arvind Narayanan; I never signed up for this! Privacy implications of email tracking; In Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETS); 2018; 18 pages.

tl;dr → use Thunderbird with all plugins enabled (Ad Block, Cookie Block, etc.) or use Google Mail on the web.

Abstract

We show that the simple act of viewing emails contains privacy pitfalls for the unwary. We assembled a corpus of commercial mailing-list emails, and find a network of hundreds of third parties that track email recipients via methods such as embedded pixels. About 30% of emails leak the recipient’s email address to one or more of these third parties when they are viewed. In the majority of cases, these leaks are intentional on the part of email senders, and further leaks occur if the recipient clicks links in emails. Mail servers and clients may employ a variety of defenses, but we analyze 16 servers and clients and find that they are far from comprehensive. We propose, prototype, and evaluate a new defense, namely stripping tracking tags from emails based on enhanced versions of existing web tracking protection lists.

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The Princeton Web Transparency And Accountability Project | Narayanan, Reisman

Arvind Narayanan, Dillon Reisman; The Princeton Web Transparency and Accountability Project; In Tania Cerquitelli, Daniele Quercia, Frank Pasquale (editors); Transparent Data Mining for Big and Small Data; Springer; 2017.

tl;dr → There be dragons. Princeton was is there. Tell it! Testify!

Abstract

When you browse the web, hidden “third parties” collect a large amount of data about your behavior. This data feeds algorithms to target ads to you, tailor your news recommendations, and sometimes vary prices of online products. The network of trackers comprises hundreds of entities, but consumers have little awareness of its pervasiveness and sophistication. This chapter discusses the findings and experiences of the Princeton Web Transparency Project, which continually monitors the web to uncover what user data companies collect, how they collect it, and what they do with it. We do this via a largely automated monthly “census” of the top 1 million websites, in effect “tracking the trackers”. Our tools and findings have proven useful to regulators and investigatory journalists, and have led to greater public awareness, the cessation of some privacy-infringing practices, and the creation of new consumer privacy tools. But the work raises many new questions. For example, should we hold websites accountable for the privacy breaches caused by third parties? The chapter concludes with a discussion of such tricky issues and makes recommendations for public policy and regulation of privacy.

Mentions

  • Marvin Minsky
  • expert systems
  • Machine Learning
  • Artifical Intelligence
  • Big Data
  • Netflix
  • Self-Driving Cars
  • collect data first, ask questions later
  • surveillance infrastructure
  • Kafkaesque
  • data and algorithmic transparency
  • Workshop on Data and Algorithmic Transparency
  • Princeton Web Transparency and Accountability Project (WebTAP)
    Princeton Web Census
  • Privacy scholar
  • Ryan Calo
  • The Party System
  • first party
  • third party
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
  • Facebook Like Button
  • The Beauty and the Beast Project
  • Panopticlick
  • Anonymous
  • Pseudonymous
  • biases
  • discrimination
  • targeted political messaging
  • price discrimination
  • market manipulation
  • AdChoices
  • ad blockers
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
  • Optimizely
  • A/B Testing
  • OpenWPM (Open Web Privacy Measurement)
  • FourthParth
  • FPDetective
  • PhamtomJS
  • Firefox
  • Tor
  • Facebook Connect
  • Google Single Sign-On (SSO)
  • longitudinal studies
  • HTML5, Canvas API
  • canvas fingerprinting
  • AddThis
  • AudioContext API
  • WebRTC API
  • Battery Status API
  • NSA (National Security Agency)
  • Snowden
  • Cookies
  • transitive cookie linking
  • HTTPS
  • cookie syncing
  • Google
  • Facebook
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
  • yahoo.com
  • Cross-Device Tracking
  • header enrichment (by ISPs)
  • Ghostery
  • AdBlock Plus
  • uBlock Origin
  • machine learning classifier (for tracking behavior)
  • Big Data (they used Big Data and Machine Learning Classifiers)
  • Nudge (a book)
  • Choice Architecture
  • 3rd Part Cookies, blocking 3rd party cookies
  • Do Not Track
  • Battery API
  • Internet Explorer
  • zero sum game
  • power user interfaces
  • PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)
  • Cookie Blocking
  • <buzz>long tail (of innovation)</buzz>
  • Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)
  • child-directed websites.
  • American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
  • Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
  • Personally-Identifiable Information (PII)
  • shift of power, from 3rd parties to publishers
  • Columbia University
  • Carnegie Mellon University
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • WiFi
  • cross-device tracking
  • smartphone app
  • Fairness, Accountability and Transparency in Machine Learning (FAT-ML)
  • Princeton

Quoted

  • “The best minds of our generation are thinking about how to make people click on ads” attributed to Jeff Hammerbacher

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De-Anonymizing Web Browsing Data with Social Networks | Su, Shukla, Goel, Narayanan

Jessica Su, Ansh Shukla, Sharad Goel, Arvind Narayanan; De-Anonymizing Web Browsing Data with Social Networks; draft; In Some Venue Surely (they will publish this somewhere, it is so very nicely formatted); 2017-05; 9 pages.

Abstract

Can online trackers and network adversaries de-anonymize web browsing data readily available to them? We show—theoretically, via simulation, and through experiments on real user data—that de-identified web browsing histories can be linked to social media profiles using only publicly available data. Our approach is based on a simple observation: each person has a distinctive social network, and thus the set of links appearing in one’s feed is unique. Assuming users visit links in their feed with higher probability than a random user, browsing histories contain tell-tale marks of identity. We formalize this intuition by specifying a model of web browsing behavior and then deriving the maximum likelihood estimate of a user’s social profile. We evaluate this strategy on simulated browsing histories, and show that given a history with 30 links originating from Twitter, we can deduce the corresponding Twitter profile more than 50% of the time. To gauge the real-world effectiveness of this approach, we recruited nearly 400 people to donate their web browsing histories, and we were able to correctly identify more than 70% of them. We further show that several online trackers are embedded on sufficiently many websites to carry out this attack with high accuracy. Our theoretical contribution applies to any type of transactional data and is robust to noisy observations, generalizing a wide range of previous de-anonymization attacks. Finally, since our attack attempts to find the correct Twitter profile out of over 300 million candidates, it is—to our knowledge—the largest-scale demonstrated de-anonymization to date.

Promotions

  • Ad Networks Can Personally Identify Web Users; Wendy Davis; In MediaPost; 2017-01-20.
    <quote> The authors tested their theory by recruiting 400 people who allowed their Web browsing histories to be tracked, and then comparing the sites they visited to sites mentioned in Twitter accounts they followed. The researchers say they were able to use that method to identify more than 70% of the volunteers.</quote>

Innovation and the Value of Privacy | Columbia University

Innovation and the Value of Privacy; At The Sanford C. Bernstein & Co. Center for Leadership and Ethics, Graduate School of Business, Columbia University; 2016-02-05.

tl;dr → (4 hours) a conference, a gathering, a happening, a celebration, a happy hour.

Attractors

OpenWPM: An automated platform for web privacy measurement | Englehardt, Eubank, Zimmerman, Reisman, Narayanan

Steven Englehardt, Chris Eubank, Peter Zimmerman, Dillon Reisman, Arvind Narayanan; OpenWPM: An automated platform for web privacy measurement; draft; 2016-03-15; 12 pages.

tl;dr → yettanother crawl-and-report framework; like AdFisher, FourthParty, XRay, but different.  A survey of the previous work.

Abstract

Web measurement techniques have been highly influential in online privacy debates and have brought transparency to the online tracking ecosystem. Due to its complexity, however, web privacy measurement remains a specialized research field. Our aim in this work is transform it into a widely available tool.

First, we analyze over 30 web privacy measurement studies, identify several methodological challenges for the experimenter, and discuss how to address them. Next, we present the design and implementation of OpenWPM, a flexible, modular web privacy measurement platform that can handle any experiment that maps to a general framework. It supports parallelism for speed and scale, automatic recovery from failures of the underlying browser, and realistic simulation of users. OpenWPM is open-source1 and has already been used as the basis of several published studies on web privacy and security. We show how our generic platform provides a common foundation for these diverse experiments, including a new study on the “filter bubble” which we present here.

Mentions

Actualities

Promotions

References

63 references; the previous work.

Leaving Your Fingerprint In Your Code | Simplicity 2.0

Leaving Your Fingerprint In Your Code; In Simplicity 2.0; 2015.

Original Sources

Mentions

How cookies can be used for global surveillance | Freedom to Tinker

; How cookies can be used for global surveillance; In Freedom to Tinker; 2014-12-18.

Original Sources

Web Privacy and Transparency Conference

Web Privacy and Transparency Conference; Center for Information Technology Policy at Princeton; 2014-10-24.

tl;dr => a 1-day session

Who

The Web never forgets: Persistent tracking mechanisms in the wild | Acar, Eubank, Englehardt, Juarez, Narayanan, Diaz

Gunes Acar, Christian Eubank, Steven Englehardt, Marc Juarez, Arvind Narayanan, Claudia Diaz; The Web never forgets: Persistent tracking mechanisms in the wild; In Proceedings of the Conference on Computer & Communication Security (CCS); 2014-11, draft of 2014-07-24; landing.

Separately noted.