Escape The Matrix | Wired

Escape The Matrix: The Internet is the Uncanniest Valley, Don’t Get Trapped There; Virginia Heffernan; In Wired; 2017-09.
Teaser: The Great Tech Panic: The Internet is The Uncanniest Valley
Virginia Heffernan performs the tweeting at @page88.

tl;dr → The techno panic is discursive: internet life is not A Life Well Lived; as such, and wrapped in 2125 words.
and → Computers are a fetish (just like any other).


The Great Tech Publishing Panic of 2017.


Virginia Heffernan; Magic and Loss: The Internet as Art; Simon & Schuster; 2017-06-027; 272 pages; ASIN:1501132679: kindle: $13, paper: $2+SHT.


  • Amazon
    • Alexa, of Amazon
    • Echo, of Amazon
  • Facebook
  • Google
  • Instagram
  • Snapchat
  • Snopes
  • Spotify
  • Twitter
  • YouTube


  • Elaine Scarry, a philosoph.
    • Professor of English and American Literature and Language, the Walter M. Cabot Professor of Aesthetics and the General Theory of Value at Harvard University; via Jimi Wales’ Wiki
  • David Kessler
    • this guy
      David Kessler, expert, popularizer

      • grief counseling
      • adviser to the stars of Hollywood.
    • not this guy
      David Aaron Kessler. In Jimi Wales’ Wiki.

      • pediatrics
      • law
      • Commissioner of the Food &amp Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Masahiro Mori, professor, robtics.


<quote>The same anxiety turned contempt attends much of today’s social media, notably Twitter and Snapchat, where the sheen of fatuousness, cryptic UX, and clubhouse jargon appears designed to humiliate and enfeeble.</quote>

<quote>David Kessler has written about mental illness, thoughts, ideologies, and persistent images of past or future can “capture” a person and stall their mental freedom.</quote>

<quote>Paradoxically, framing the internet as a text to be read, not a life to be led, tends to break, without effort, its spell. Conscious reading, after all, is a demanding ocular and mental activity that satisfies specific intellectual reward centers. And it’s also a workout; at the right time, brain sated, a reader tends to become starved for the sensory, bodily, three-dimensional experience of mortality, nature, textures, and sounds—and flees the thin gruel of text.</quote>
Challenge to the reader: edit this down to ten words, but retain the metaphor of “breaks the spell” and the (physical) “workout” concept.


  • Elaine Scarry, Dreaming by the Book, 1999
    tl;dr → <quote>a manifesto on literature and the imagination.</quote>
  • Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat,, a movie, 1896.
  • The Polar Express, a movie, 2010+ (recent)


The Suitcase Words

Oh my, lots of them…
  • Acela
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • blockchain
  • Coke
    Diet Coke
  • James Comey
  • cyber, the cyber
    • cyberattack
    • cyberwarefare
  • Diet Coke
  • drones
  • digitization
  • GIF
  • GPS
  • McModern design
  • Mentos
  • OGG (sic)
    Ogg, definition
  • Barack Obama
  • PGP
  • Pokémon Go
  • Redit
    • reditor
    • subredditor
  • Russia
  • Super Mario Odyssey
  • web metropolis
  • UX
  • vapors
    suffering the vapors
  • YouTube

Publishers, pick your KPIs and stick with them | Monday Note

Frederic Filloux; Publishers, pick your KPIs and stick with them; In His Blog, entitled Monday Note, centrally  hosted on Medium; 2017-09-17.
Teaser: News publishers reassure themselves with the number of Key Performance Indicators at their disposal. The selection of gauges is always indicative of business priorities (or lack of thereof).

tl;dr→ For the KPI, use ARPU, only; ignore others.


  • Average Revenue Per User (ARPU)
  • Google
  • page loading latency
  • viewability
  • advertising
  • Facebook
  • Mechanical Turk
  • BuzzFeed


Break Up the Tech Giants? No, Just Level the Field | Bloomberg

Break Up the Tech Giants? No, Just Level the Field; Leonid Bershidsky; In Bloomberg View; 2017-09-11.
Teaser: Facebook, Google and Uber should be held to the same rules as their older rivals.

tl;dr → regulate them, just like every other industry
and → besides the real question is about tax obligations, the taxes are not being paid.

Question → <quote>How can these benign, universally loved innovators be stopped from turning into evil, soulless corporate behemoths? </quote>
Answer → regulate them (a.k.a. “mend it, don’t end it”).


  • United States
  • European Union (EU)
  • Facebook
  • Google
  • search market share
  • Amazon
  • presidential campaign
  • fake accounts
  • Russia
  • Whole Foods, of Amazon
  • Facebook
  • Google
  • Amazon
  • Barry Lynn
  • New America Foundation
  • Open Markets (program)
  • Eric Schmidt
  • “hipster antitrust,” attributed to Joshua Wright, from a tweet
    Joshua Wright, is professor of law, George Mason University.
  • Margrethe Vestager, antitrust commissioner, The European Union.
  • Amazon
  • Uber, a taxi company
  • Airbnb, is a hospitality company
  • “platforms”
  • eBay
  • an Indian law
    requires 100 percent foreign ownership of companies that operate mainly as a marketplace, with no more than 25 percent of their sales coming from one vendor, such as the company itself
  • the mantle of innovation


<quote>It shouldn’t be allowed to “tech” companies either; otherwise, the playing field is not level and older rivals have less resources to invest in new technology to compete more effectively.
This is not really about antitrust, though state aid laws in Europe are the purview of competition authorities; this is about closing obvious, well-known tax loopholes.</quote>


  • tech giants
  • tech leaders
  • these U.S. behemoths
  • a Caribbean shell company holding the rights to a distribution scheme or an ad-selling technique.



In Bloomberg View

In Bloomberg

Bridging Industry and Academia to Tackle Responsible Research and Privacy Practices | FPF

Bridging Industry and Academia to Tackle Responsible Research and Privacy Practices; an announcement, a call for participation; Future of Privacy Foundation (FPF); 2017-11-02 & 2017-07-03.


  • Data Analytics and Privacy–Preserving Technologies.
  • Privacy and Ethics in User Research.
  • People-Centered Privacy Design.

Program Committee

  • Bart Knijnenberg, Clemson University
  • Casey Fiesler, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Janice Tsai, Mozilla
  • Jed Brubaker, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Jessica Vitak, University of Maryland
  • Lorraine Kisselburgh, Purdue University
  • Luke Stark, Dartmouth College
  • Mary Ellen Zurko
  • Nicholas Proferes, University of Kentucky
  • Norah Abokhodair, Microsoft
  • Woodrow Hartzog, Northeastern University School of Law
  • Yang Wang, Syracuse University


Materials: 2017-09-22.


Facebook’s offices, New York, NY

The Fall of the Labor Share and the Rise of Superstar Firms | Autor, Dorn, Katz, Patterson, Van Reenen

David Autor (MIT) David Dorn (Zurich) Lawrence F. Katz (Harvard), Christina Patterson (MIT), John Van Reenen (MIT); The Fall of the Labor Share and the Rise of Superstar Firms; In Some Venue Surely, <sour>or maybe this is one of those half-decade duration “working papers” that the social scientists meditate upon before reporting out a “completed work” long after the effect has dematerialized <advice>give it a DOI number and be done with it, everyone else has already used or ignored the implications for policymakers concepts in the remediatory nostrums</advice></sour>; 2017-05-01; 74 pages.

tl;dr →The rise of superstar firms and decline in the labor share also appears to be related to changes in the boundaries of large dominant employers with such firms increasingly using domestic outsourcing to contracting firms, temporary help agencies, and independent contractors and freelancers for a wider range of activities previously done in-house, including janitorial work, food services, logistics, and clerical work.</quote>


Proven (shown with the evidence available at the time).

  1. industry sales will increasingly concentrate in a small number of firms.
  2. industries where [industry sales] concentration rises most will have the largest declines in the [unweighted mean] labor share.
  3. the fall decline in the [unweighted mean] labor share will be driven largely by caused by between-firm reallocation
    the fall decline in the labor share will be independent of (primarily) a fall decline in the unweighted mean labor share within firms.
  4. the between-firm reallocation component of the fall decrease in the [unweighted mean] labor share will be greatest in the sectors with the greatest increases in market [industry sales] concentration.
  5. the effect is pervasive, always and everywhere <quote>such patterns will be observed not only in U.S. firms, but also internationally<quote>.


The fall of labor’s share of GDP in the United States and many other countries in recent decades is well documented but its causes remain uncertain. Existing empirical assessments of trends in labor’s share typically have relied on industry or macro data, obscuring heterogeneity among firms. In this paper, we analyze micro panel data from the U.S. Economic Census since 1982 and international sources and document empirical patterns to assess a new interpretation of the fall in the labor share based on the rise of “superstar firms.” If globalization or technological changes advantage the most productive firms in each industry, product market concentration will rise as industries become increasingly dominated by superstar firms with high profits and a low share of labor in firm value-added and sales. As the importance of superstar firms increases, the aggregate labor share will tend to fall. Our hypothesis offers several testable predictions: industry sales will increasingly concentrate in a small number of firms; industries where concentration rises most will have the largest declines in the labor share; the fall in the labor share will be driven largely by between-firm reallocation rather than (primarily) a fall in the unweighted mean labor share within firms; the between-firm reallocation component of the fall in the labor share will be greatest in the sectors with the largest increases in market concentration; and finally, such patterns will be observed not only in U.S. firms, but also internationally. We find support for all of these predictions.


In this paper we have considered a new “superstar firm” explanation for the widely remarked fall in the labor share of GDP. We hypothesize that markets have changed such that firms with superior quality, lower costs, or greater innovation reap disproportionate rewards relative to prior eras. Since these superstar firms have higher profit levels, they also tend to have a lower share of labor in sales and value-added. As superstar firms gain market share across a wide range of sectors, the aggregate share of labor falls. Our model, combined with technological or institutional changes advantaging the most productive firms in many industries, yields predictions that are supported by Census micro-data across the bulk of the U.S. private sector. First, sales concentration levels rise across large swathes of industries. Second, those industries where concentration rises the most have the sharpest falls in the labor share. Third, the fall in the labor share has an important reallocation component between firms—the unweighted mean of labor share has not fallen much. Fourth, this between-firm reallocation of the labor share is greatest in the sectors that are concentrating the most. Fifth, these broad patterns are observed not only in U.S. data, but also internationally in European OECD countries. Notably, the growth of concentration is disproportionately apparent in industries experiencing faster technical change as measured by the growth of patent-intensity or total factor productivity, suggesting that technological dynamism, rather than simply anti-competitive forces, is an important driver of this trend.

The work in this paper is of course descriptive and suggestive rather than the final word in this area. Future work needs to understand more precisely the shocks that lead to the emergence of superstar firms. We have presented our model as one where productivity (or quality) differences between firms are magnified when the competitive environment changes, turning leading firms into dominating superstars. One source for the change in the environment could be technological: high tech sectors and parts of retail and transportation as well have an increasingly “winner takes all” aspect. But an alternative story is that leading firms are now able to lobby better and create barriers to entry, making it more difficult for smaller firms to grow or for new firms to enter. In its pure form, this “rigged economy” view seems unlikely as a complete explanation. The industries where concentration has grown are those that have been increasing their innovation most rapidly as indicated by patents (Figure 14). One might be concerned that these patents are designed to thwart innovation and enshrine monopolies (e.g., Boldrin and Levine, 2008). However, we also observe similar relationships when measuring innovation by citation-weighted patents or TFP growth.

A more subtle story, however, is that firms initially gain high market shares by legitimately competing on the merits of their innovations or superior efficiency. Once they have gained a commanding position, however, they use their market power to erect various barriers to entry to protect their position. Nothing in our analysis rules out this mechanism, and we regard it as an important area for subsequent research.

The rise of superstar firms and decline in the labor share also appears to be related to changes in the boundaries of large dominant employers with such firms increasingly using domestic outsourcing to contracting firms, temporary help agencies, and independent contractors and freelancers for a wider range of activities previously done in-house, including janitorial work, food services, logistics, and clerical work (Weil, 2014; Katz and Krueger 2016). This fissuring of the workplace can directly reduce the labor share by saving on the wage premia (firm effects) typically paid by large high-wage employers to ordinary workers and by reducing the bargaining power of both in-house and outsourced workers in occupations subject to outsourcing threats and increased labor market competition (Dube and Kaplan, 2010; Goldschmidt and Schmieder, 2017). The increased fissuring of the workplace has been associated with a rising correlation of firm wage effects and person effects (skills) that accounts for a significant portion of the increase in U.S. wage inequality since 1980 (Song et al., 2016). Linking the rise of superstar firms and the fall of the labor share with the trends in inequality between employees should also be an important avenue of future research.




The “superstar firms” are “winner take most”

  • AirBNB
  • Amazon
  • Apple
  • Facebook
  • Federal Express
  • Google
  • Uber
  • Walmart


  • But not for Sears (giggle)
  • But not for coal (mining)
  • But not for oil (end-to-end)
  • But not for autos (design, integration, assembly)
  • But not for airlines
  • But not for bulk steel
  • But not for shipbuilding
  • But not for furniture making
  • But not for semiconductors
  • But maybe for (mobile) CPU chips; e.g. Samsung of ARMdroid.
    But maybe for (desktop) CPU chips; e.g. Intel of Wintel.

Tech is Public Enemy #1. So Now What? | John Battelle

John Battelle; Tech Is Public Enemy #1. So Now What?; In His Blog, white-labeled as NewCo, centrally-hosted on Medium; 2017-09-10.
Teaser: If tech wants to reverse the crushing tide of negative public opinion, it must start creating public good commensurate with its extraction of private profit.

tl;dr → Agree, perhaps. But it’s not clear to what one is agreeing at all; whereas the lede is buried. That being promotion of Richard Florida’s book The New Urban Crisis.
and → Unto the hook of the title: For the sin.

  • Enumerate.
  • Confess,
  • Repent,
  • Restitute, reparate.
  • Return.


John Battelle interviewed Richard Florida towards a book promotion.


Richard Florida The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class—and What We Can Do About It 1st Edition ; Basic Books; 2017-04-11; 336 pages; ASIN:0465079741: Kindle: $18, paper: $12+SHT.


  • Where “tech” is Apple, Amazon, Facebook, Google, and maybe Netflix (rly?).
  • And JB foresaw it in a vision of 2017-01; fair. he also “saw” it in 2011-12, had Microsoft in the cohort, and pitched “The Internet Big Five” as a gushing chronicle-of-the-times, only-time-will-tell honorific of boosterist veneration. It’s okay to change one’s mind.
  • Richard Florida is granted 191 words at the end to speak as a threat.
    Whereas Richard Florida has a direct line to Congress.
    Unless his demands are met … something will happen
  • Google Apple Facebook Amazon (GAFA),
    Google Amazon Facebook Apple (GAFA)
  • Facebook Amazon Netflix Google (FANG),
    Facebook Apple Netflix Google (FANG)
  • No Wintel
    • No Microsoft?
    • No Intel?

Separately noted.


Who Owns the Internet? — What Big Tech’s Monopoly Powers Mean for our Culture | The New Yorker

Who Owns the Internet? — What Big Tech’s Monopoly Powers Mean for our Culture, also appearing in non-clickbait non-machine readable settings (i.e. in paper-print) as “The Content of No Content”; Elizabeth Kolbert (bio); In The New Yorker; 2017-08-28.
Teaser: What Big Tech’s monopoly powers mean for our culture.

tl;dr → a paean to the two jeremiads.


Book Promotion


Each reference in the original article points at Amazon.
Because she can; because it is easy. And, most importantly: what else could she do?

Does this obviate the argument presented?
Of course.


GAFA, attributed to “the Europeans”
  • Google
  • Amazon
  • Facebook
  • Apple


The Victorian Internet

By way of convention in these things, requisite throat clearing: a story, a parable, concerning the election of 1876 wherein the Republicans, once before had lost the popular vote but “stole” the election with subtrefuge, misdirection, technical trickery and outright dishonesty. To wit:

  • 1876-11-07,
  • Lucy Hayes, Mrs. Rutherford B Hayes.
  • Rutherford B. Hayes, President of the United States
  • Columbus, Ohio
  • Samuel J. Tilden, Democrat, candidate for President (he lost).
  • Electoral College.
  • William Henry Smith
    “ran” the “western arm” Associated Press
  • Collusion, there was.
  • Western Union
    a “monopoly” over telgraph lines
  • The election is thrown into dispute.
  • “Hayesociated Press”
  • 1877-03-05, the New York Sun appeared with a black border on the front page.
  • 1877-03-07, Rutherford B. Hayes is inaugurated.
  • <quote>History doesn’t repeat itself, but it does rhyme.</quote>, attributed to Mark Twain.


  • Amazon
  • Apple
  • Facebook
  • Google
    • Google Books
    • YouTube
  • Napster, deceased


  • Jeff Bezos
  • Dale Andrew Carnegie
  • Sheryl Sandberg, chief operating officer, Facebook.
  • Mark Zuckerberg
  • Judy Collins
  • Bob Dylan
  • Levon Helm, drummer, The Band
  • George Harrison, sponsor, The Concert for Bangladesh.


  • Digital Media Copyright Act
  • Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA)
    • Jimi Wales’ Wiki
    • 2011-Fall
    • Sponsors
      • Senator Marco Rubio, FL
      • Someone else
    • Backers
      • National District Attorneys Association
      • National League of Cities,
      • Association of Talent Agencies
      • International Brotherhood of Teamsters
    • 2012-02, Google acts: the black search page.


  • “The Koch brothers” are bad, per Jonathan Taplin.
  • Google is bad, like “The Koch brothers”, per Jonathan Taplin.
  • The Huffington Post (a.k.a. HuffPost) stands accused of pilfering aggregating “content” by Franklin Foer.
  • Newspapers are good,
    exemplars of such goodness:
  • The Washington Times
  • The Washington Post.
  • Big Tech
  • Facebook, is bad
  • paywalls, are good.

Stolley’s Law

  • Attributed to Dick Stolley, in “the nineteen-eighties.”
  • Dick Stolley, was founding editor of People
  • A formula for magazine cover images
    • Young is better than old.
    • Pretty is better than ugly.
    • Rich is better than poor.
    • Movies are better than music.
    • Music is better than television.
    • Television is better than sports.
    • And anything is better than politics.

On “Virality”

  • Chartbeat,
    automates Stolley’s Law.
  • Cecil The Lion, 2015, shot, arrow, Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a dentist, from Minnesota.
  • Donald Trump
  • <quote>Trump began as Cecil the Lion, and then ended up president of the United States</quote>, attributed to Franklin Foer.


  • Stewart Brand
  • Ken Kesey
    dropping a lot of acid
  • The Whole Earth Catalog
  • Whole Earth ’Lectronic Link (WELL)
  • Rolling Stone, 1972
  • a prediction of “no more [need for] editors”, attributed to Stewart Brand
Vignette on the “Virality”
Something about politics and money…
  • Silicon Valley
  • Hillary Clinton.
  • Democratic National Committee
  • e-mails (But her emails? No, their emails, via Russia)
  • Sheryl Sandberg, chief operating officer, Facebook.
  • John Podesta, campaign chairman, Hilary Clinton 2016.
  • listicles
  • fake news
  • Beqa Latsabidze
    • age 22
    • undergraduate, computer-science
    • Tbilisi
  • A traffic generation scheme
    • Pro-Hillary Clinton generates revenue.
    • Pro-Donald Trunp generates revenue.
    • <quote>For me, this is all about income<quote>, attributed to Beqa Latsabidze.

Anti-Trust Action

  • European Union
  • Google
  • $2.7-billion fine.
  • United States, Department of Justice
  • A.T. & T.,
  • Alleged
    Violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act.
  • Result
    • Consent decree
    • Signed 1956
    • A.T. & T. to license all the patents of Bell Labs, for a small fee.
  • The transistor.
  • The salubrious effect.

Google in 2016 is like A.T.&T . in 1956.


  • The craft workers must seize the means of production, attributed to Jonathan Like.
  • The parable of the artisanal cheesemakers, <quote>The culture industries need to present themselves as the organic alternative, a symbol of status and aspiration. Subscriptions are the route away from the aisles of clickbait. <snip>admonition to read a book</snip> If the tech companies hope to absorb the totality of human existence, then reading on paper is one of the few slivers of life that they can’t fully integrate”, attributed to Franklin Foer.


  • Magnum Photos
    • founded 1947
    • Robert Capa
    • Henri Cartier-Bresson
    • and others.

Contra Getty Images and Corbis.


In The New Yorker


He’s at that awkward age—too old to be cute, but not dead yet.

“He’s at that awkward age—too old to be cute, but not dead yet.”


Amazon Sparks Hiring Rift in Overlooked Silicon Valley City | WSJ

Amazon Sparks Hiring Rift in Overlooked Silicon Valley City; ;  In The Wall Street Journal (WSJ); 2017-08-11.
Teaser: In East Palo Alto, residents protest tech giant’s proposed workaround to hire-local ordinance


  • Amazon
  • Facebook
  • Tesla
  • IKEA
  • Home Depot
  • McDonald’s
  • East Palo Alto “first source hiring policy” ordinance since 2001
    requiring companies put in a “good-faith effort” to hire locally.
  • The “Jobs”
    • Amazon hires cloud-services unit, Amazon web services, and “other teams.”
      requested a variance on first source hiring.
    • Four Seasons requires “high-level of customer service,” & English proficiency.
    • McDonald’s hires workers.
    • Home Depot, ibidem.
    • IKEA, ibidem.
  • Ruben Abrica, city council member, East Palo Alto.
  • Greg Schrock, associate professor of urban studies and planning, Portland State University
    quoted for color, background & verisimiliitude.
    <paraphased>Such policies tend to better cater to jobs in retail, manufacturing and construction.</paraphased>
  • with the map of the region
    provided for the benefit of the home town audience, back in New York.
  • with estimated household income levels
    provided to slake the sullen anger at the petit bourgeoise amongst them.


The Internet Isn’t Optimized For Meritocracy | MediaPost

The Internet Isn’t Optimized For Meritocracy; ; In MediaPost; 2017-09-01.
Kaila Colbin is co-founder, Ministry of Awesome, an NGO, a community booster club for Christchurch, NZ
“Ministry of Awesome is the starting point for making things happen in Christchurch, NZ”

tl;dr → Kaila Colbin is unhappy, in some unspecified way.
and → Amazon, Facebook, Google, Netflix, YouTube are bad.


  • Amazon
  • Facebook
  • Google
  • Netflix
  • YouTube


  • Her point, and she does have one…
    The references are helpful.


  • “On the Internet, no one knows you’re a dog”, In The New Yorker, 1993-07; cartoon.
  • Network Effect; In Jimi Wales; Wiki.
  • Ben Thompson; Aggregation Theory; In His Blog; WHEN?
  • Benedict Evans (A16z); Winner Take All; In His Blog; 2017-08-20.
    tl;dr → there is a Network Effect (“winner take all” effect) in the industry supporting autonomous automobiles; e.g. LIDAR units are a commodity, anyone and everyone makes them could make them.
    Thusly, The Salubrious Effect accrues unto

    1. [businesses selling] software
    2. [businesses selling] city-wide optimization and routing [services]
    3. [businesses operating] on-demand fleets.

Defending Internet Freedom Through Decentralization: Back to the Future? | Barabas, Narula, Zuckerman

Chelsea Barabas, Neha Narula, Ethan Zuckerman; Defending Internet Freedom Through Decentralization: Back to the Future?;a book?; The Center for Civic Media & The Digital Currency Initiative; MIT Media Lab; 2017; 113 pages.

tl;dr → theoretical; mentions Bitcoin on page 2; offers a cook’s tour of the boosterist community and their projects: Freedom Box, Diaspora, Mastodon, Blockstack, Interplanetary File System (IPFS), Solid, Appcoins, Steemit.

Table of Contents

  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
    • The Rise of the Centralized Web
    • Risks Posed by the Centralized Web
    • Structural Interventions as a Possible Solution
  • Section II: Federation
    • Freedom Box
    • Diaspora
    • Mastodon
  • Section III: Open Protocols
    • Authentication
    • Blockstack
    • Interoperability
    • IPFS
    • Solid
  • Section IV: Appcoins
    • Steemit
  • Conclusion


  • Wait and see, only time will tell.
    <quote>A precondition for the success of these distributed
    platforms is a shift towards user-controlled data,</quote>
  • Fund the projects (the best-of-breed exemplars, below, and more)
    e.g. Let’s Encrypt.
  • The fascination, gee whiz!; it’s simply phenomenal!
    Use Appcoins

    • circumvent Venture Capital funding.
    • business model: unspecified, but definitely “not advertising”
  • A fool and his money are soon parted:
    • <quote>However, this space also has a lot of potential for scams, and it might be unreasonable to expect users to manage a financial stake in many different networks.</quote>


  • Bitcoin
  • Facebook
  • Reddit
  • Let’s Encrypt
  • Appcoins
  • Digitial Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)


  • Freedom Box
  • Diaspora
  • Mastodon
  • Blockstack
  • Interplanetary File System (IPFS)
  • Solid
  • Appcoins
  • Steemit


  • User and developer adoption
  • Security
  • Monetization and incentives



There are 201, presented as footnotes.

Separately noted.